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  • Blue law

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    Alexander Johnston.Blue laws, also known as Sunday laws, are laws designed to restrict or ban some or all Sunday activities for religious reasons, particularly to promote the observance of a day of worship or rest. Blue laws may also restrict shopping or ban sale of certain items on specific days, most often on Sundays in the western world. Blue laws are enforced in parts of the United States and Canada as well as some European countries, particularly in Austria, Germany, Switzerland, and Norway, keeping most stores closed on Sundays. In the United States, the U.S. Supreme Court has held blue laws as constitutional numerous times, citing secular bases such as securing a day of rest for mail carriers, as well as protecting workers and families, in turn contributing to societal stability and guaranteeing the free exercise of religion. The origin of the blue laws also partially stems from religion, particularly the prohibition of Sabbath desecration in Christian Churches following the first-day Sabbatarian tradition. Both labour unions and trade associations have historically supported the legislation of blue laws.

  • Police vehicles in the United States and Canada

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    A Ford Crown Victoria police car in service with the United States Capitol Police, 2012. A Chevrolet Suburban in service with the Toronto Police Service Emergency Task Force, 2008. A Communications Division Command Post vehicle in service with the New York City Police Department.Police vehicles in the United States and Canada are made by several maufacturers and are available in three broad vehicle types: Police Pursuit Vehicles (PPV) are the most common police cars and are equipped to handle the vast majority of tasks including pursuit and high-speed response calls Special Service Vehicles (SSV) and Special Service Package (SSP) are specialized vehicles, such as SUVs and sports cars, and are generally heavier-duty vehicles that may come with specialized option packages that can be used for specific tasks, but are typically not recommended by the manufacturer for use as pursuit vehicles.

  • Vehicle inspection in the United States

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    Vehicle inspection laws by state: Striped: Both safety and emissions testing required In the United States, vehicle safety inspection and emissions inspection are governed by each state individually. 17 states have a periodic (annual or biennial) safety inspection program, while Maryland and Alabama require a safety inspection on sale or transfer of vehicles which were previously registered in another state. In 1977, the federal Clean Air Act was amended by Congress to require states to implement vehicle emissions inspection programs, known as I/M programs (for Inspection and Maintenance), in all major metropolitan areas whose air quality failed to meet certain federal standards. New York's program started in 1982, California's program ("Smog Check") started in 1984, and Illinois' program started in 1986. The Clean Air Act of 1990 required some states to enact vehicle emissions inspection programs. State impacted were those in metropolitan areas where air quality did not meet federal standards. Some states, including Kentucky and Minnesota, have discontinued their testing programs in recent years with approval from the federal government.

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