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  • Storage tank

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    Spherical gas tank farm in the petroleum refinery in Karlsruhe MiROStorage tanks are containers that hold liquids, compressed gases (gas tank; or in U.S.A "pressure vessel", which is not typically labeled or regulated as a storage tank) or mediums used for the short- or long-term storage of heat or cold. The term can be used for reservoirs (artificial lakes and ponds), and for manufactured containers. The usage of the word tank for reservoirs is uncommon in American English but is moderately common in British English. In other countries, the term tends to refer only to artificial containers. In the USA, storage tanks operate under no (or very little) pressure, distinguishing them from pressure vessels. Storage tanks are often cylindrical in shape, perpendicular to the ground with flat bottoms, and a fixed flangible or floating roof. There are usually many environmental regulations applied to the design and operation of storage tanks, often depending on the nature of the fluid contained within. Above-ground storage tanks (ASTs) differ from underground storage tanks (USTs) in the kinds of regulations that are applied. Above ground storage tanks can be used to hold materials such as petroleum, waste matter, water, chemicals, and other hazardous materials, all while meeting strict industry standards and regulations. Reservoirs can be covered, in which case they may be called covered or underground storage tanks or reservoirs. Covered water tanks are common in urban areas. Storage tanks are available in many shapes: vertical and horizontal cylindrical; open top and closed top; flat bottom, cone bottom, slope bottom and dish bottom. Large tanks tend to be vertical cylindrical, or to have rounded corners transition from vertical side wall to bottom profile, to easier withstand hydraulic hydrostatically induced pressure of contained liquid. Most container tanks for handling liquids during transportation are designed to handle varying degrees of pressure. A large storage tank is sometimes mounted on a lorry (truck) or on an articulated lorry trailer, which is then called a tanker. In the U.S., air emissions, which correspond to losses for usable liquid commodities and/or salable products, are typically required to undergo air quality permitting under the Federal Clean Air Act. Quantification of potential emissions for permitting purposes is most often accomplished by applying emission equations published in Chapter 7.1 of the U.S. EPA's AP-42: Compilation of Air Emission Factors.

  • High-density polyethylene

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    SPI resin ID code 2High-density polyethylene (HDPE) or polyethylene high-density (PEHD) is a thermoplastic polymer produced from the monomer ethylene. It is sometimes called "alkathene" or "polythene" when used for HDPE pipes. With a high strength-to-density ratio, HDPE is used in the production of plastic bottles, corrosion-resistant piping, geomembranes and plastic lumber. HDPE is commonly recycled, and has the number "2" as its resin identification code. In 2007, the global HDPE market reached a volume of more than 30 million tons.

  • Water tank

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    Water tank used in Municipal Water Treatment Plant Houston Texas Water Tank Towers, featured in Kuwait City Water tank from 1876 in Hanover, Germany Derelict water tank near Boorowa Railway, Galong A water tank is a container for storing water. Water tanks are used to provide storage of water for use in many applications, drinking water, irrigation agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural farming, both for plants and livestock, chemical manufacturing, food preparation as well as many other uses. Water tank parameters include the general design of the tank, and choice of construction materials, linings. Various materials are used for making a water tank: plastics (polyethylene, polypropylene), fiberglass, concrete, stone, steel (welded or bolted, carbon, or stainless). Earthen pots also function as water storages. Water tanks are an efficient way to help developing countries to store clean water.

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