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  • Disc brake

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    Close-up of a disc brake on a car A disc brake is a type of brake that uses calipers to squeeze pairs of pads against a disc or "rotor" to create friction. This action retards the rotation of a shaft, such as a vehicle axle, either to reduce its rotational speed or to hold it stationary. The energy of motion is converted into waste heat which must be dispersed. Hydraulically actuated disc brakes are the most commonly used form of brake for motor vehicles, but the principles of a disc brake are applicable to almost any rotating shaft.

  • Overrun brake

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    An overrun brake (called a surge brake when invented) is a brake system commonly used on small trailers, where the motion of the trailer with respect to the towing vehicle is used to actuate the brake. The early systems were fitted with a spring system which was not very effective. Later systems were fitted with a sliding mechanism within the coupling enables the drawbar to move back and forth relative to the trailer chassis. When the towing vehicle brakes, the inertia of the trailer slides the mechanism, this in turn uses the travel of this mechanism to pull on the brake rod which applies the brakes. The sliding mechanism contains a damper to even out the shock loading transmitted from the tow vehicle. Therefore,the inertia of the trailer provides the force to apply the brakes. Some systems have a ball hitch that is normally straight, but when the lead vehicle starts braking, the trailer pushes forward on the ball hitch, pitching it up witch then activates a variable hydraulic brake system. Upon activating the trailer slows down pulling back on the hitch again, making it level then that shuts off the braking system.

  • Inboard brake

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    McLaren M23 rear brakes An inboard braking system is an automobile technology wherein the disc brakes are mounted on the chassis of the vehicle, rather than directly on the wheel hubs. The main advantages are twofold: a reduction in the unsprung weight of the wheel hubs, as this no longer includes the brake discs and calipers; also, braking torque applies directly to the chassis, rather than being taken through the suspension arms. Inboard brakes are fitted to a driven axle of the car, as they require a drive shaft to link the wheel to the brake. Most have thus been used for rear-wheel drive cars, although four-wheel drive and some front-wheel drives have also used them. A rare few rear wheel drive racing cars (e.g., the Lotus 72) have also used inboard front discs, accepting the need to provide a drive shaft to gain the unsprung weight and braking torque advantages. Inboard brakes for early racing cars have rarely used drum brakes, although nearly all inboard brakes date from the disc brake era.

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