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  • Vehicle horn


    A single reed bulb horn often used on bicycles. A horn is a sound-making device that can be equipped to motor vehicles, buses, bicycles, trains, trams (a.k.a. streetcars in North America), and other types of vehicles. The sound made usually resembles a "honk". The vehicle operator uses the horn to warn others of the vehicle's approach or presence, or to call attention to some hazard. Motor vehicles, ships and trains are required by law in some countries to have horns. Like trams, trolley cars and streetcars, bicycles are also legally required to have an audible warning device in many areas, but not universally, and not always a horn.

  • Odometer fraud


    Odometer fraud, also referred to as "busting miles" (United States) or "clocking" (UK and Ireland), is the illegal practice of rolling back odometers to make it appear that vehicles have lower mileage than they actually do. Odometer fraud occurs when the seller of a vehicle falsely represents the actual mileage of a vehicle to the buyer. According to the Office of Odometer Fraud Investigation at the US Department of Transportation, odometer fraud is a serious crime and important consumer fraud issue. In the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) 2002 odometer fraud study, the NHTSA determined that 450,000 vehicles were sold each year with false odometer readings, resulting in a cost of over $1 billion annually to car buyers in the US. In the UK the Office of Fair Trading estimates the annual cost at £500m.

  • Hydrogen vehicle


    The 2015 Toyota Mirai is one of the first hydrogen-fuel-cell vehicles to be sold commercially. The Mirai is based on the Toyota FCV concept car (shown). A hydrogen vehicle is a vehicle that uses hydrogen as its onboard fuel for motive power. Hydrogen vehicles include hydrogen-fueled space rockets, as well as automobiles and other transportation vehicles. The power plants of such vehicles convert the chemical energy of hydrogen to mechanical energy either by burning hydrogen in an internal combustion engine, or, more commonly, by reacting hydrogen with oxygen in a fuel cell to run electric motors. Widespread use of hydrogen for fueling transportation is a key element of a proposed hydrogen economy. , there are three models of hydrogen cars publicly available in select markets: the Toyota Mirai, the Hyundai Nexo, and the Honda Clarity. Several other companies are working to develop hydrogen cars. As of 2014, 95% of hydrogen is made from natural gas. It can be produced by thermochemical or pyrolitic means using renewable feedstocks, but that is an expensive process. Renewable electricity can however be used to power the conversion of water into hydrogen: Integrated wind-to-hydrogen (power-to-gas) plants, using electrolysis of water, are exploring technologies to deliver costs low enough, and quantities great enough, to compete with hydrogen production using natural gas. The drawbacks of hydrogen use are high carbon emissions intensity when produced from natural gas, capital cost burden, low energy content per unit volume at ambient conditions, production and compression of hydrogen, and the investment required in filling stations to dispense hydrogen.

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