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  • Upholstery

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    A New England easy chair at the Winterthur Museum and Country Estate in DelawareUpholstery is the work of providing furniture, especially seats, with padding, springs, webbing, and fabric or leather covers. The word upholstery comes from the Middle English word upholder, which referred to an artisan who held up their goods. The term is equally applicable to domestic, automobile, airplane and boat furniture, and can be applied to mattresses, particularly the upper layers, though these often differ significantly in design. A person who works with upholstery is called an upholsterer. An apprentice upholsterer is sometimes called an outsider or trimmer. Traditional upholstery uses materials like coil springs (post-1850), animal hair (horse, hog and cow), coir, straw and hay, hessians, linen scrims, wadding, etc., and is done by hand, building each layer up. In contrast, today's upholsterers employ synthetic materials like dacron and vinyl, serpentine springs, and so on.

  • Headliner

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    A headliner often is a composite material that is adhered to the inside roof of automobiles or yachts. It typically consists of a face fabric with nonwoven or foam backing. Headliners consist of multilayered composite materials that bring together multiple functionalities, including the requested look, feel, stiffness, and sound reduction needed in cars. Automotive headliners are optimised with respect to head impact counter measures or to integrate additional LED lighting film behind the fabric. Most headliners consist of a tricot knit fabric that is napped to provide a soft touch and uniform appearance. The fabric is adhered to melted polyurethane foam. This fabric-foam composite is glued to the interior fiberglass roof of the automobile. There are more complex knit products used as a face fabric, as well as less expensive non-woven products. Recent headliner developments include environmentally friendly products made of recyclable backing-adhesive and face fabrics. In yachts, foam-backed vinyl is often used.

  • Auto detailing

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    A man vacuuming the interior of an automobile in the Netherlands, 1916Auto detailing is the act of performing a thorough cleaning, restoration, and finishing of a motor vehicle, to produce a show-quality cleanliness and polish. Detailing can be performed on a vehicle's exterior and/or interior.

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