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  • Pseudoexfoliation syndrome

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    Pseudoexfoliation syndrome, often abbreviated as PEX and sometimes as PES or PXS, is an aging-related systemic disease manifesting itself primarily in the eyes which is characterized by the accumulation of microscopic granular amyloid-like protein fibers. Its cause is unknown, although there is speculation that there may be a genetic basis. It is more prevalent in women than men, and in persons past the age of seventy. Its prevalence in different human populations varies; for example, it is prevalent in Scandinavia. The buildup of protein clumps can block normal drainage of the eye fluid called the aqueous humor and can cause, in turn, a buildup of pressure leading to glaucoma and loss of vision (pseudoexfoliation glaucoma, exfoliation glaucoma). As worldwide populations become older because of shifts in demography, PEX may become a matter of greater concern.

  • Pilocarpine

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    Pilocarpine is a medication used to treat increased pressure inside the eye and dry mouth. As eye drops it is used for angle closure glaucoma until surgery can be performed, ocular hypertension, open angle glaucoma, and to bring about constriction of the pupil following its dilation. Onset of effects with the drops is typically within an hour and lasts for up to a day. By mouth it is used for dry mouth as a result of Sjogren's syndrome or radiation therapy. Common side effects of the eye drops include irritation of the eye, increased tearing, headache, and blurry vision. Other side effects include allergic reactions and retinal detachment. Use is generally not recommended during pregnancy. Pilocarpine is in the miotics family of medication. It works by activating cholinergic receptors of the muscarinic type which cause the trabecular meshwork to open and the aqueous humor to drain from the eye. Pilocarpine was isolated in 1874. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$1.61–4.88 per 10 ml bottle. In the United States a month of the drops costs less than $25. It was originally made from the South American plant Pilocarpus.

  • Intraocular pressure

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    A patient in front of a tonometerIntraocular pressure (IOP) is the fluid pressure inside the eye. Tonometry is the method eye care professionals use to determine this. IOP is an important aspect in the evaluation of patients at risk of glaucoma. Most tonometers are calibrated to measure pressure in millimeters of mercury (mmHg).

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