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  • Pulmonary hematoma


    A pulmonary hematoma is a collection of blood within the tissue of the lung. It may result when a pulmonary laceration fills with blood. A lung laceration filled with air is called a pneumatocele. In some cases, both pneumatoceles and hematomas exist in the same injured lung. Pulmonary hematomas take longer to heal than simple pneumatoceles and commonly leave the lungs scarred. A pulmonary contusion is another cause of bleeding within the lung tissue, but these result from microhemorrhages, multiple small bleeds, and the bleeding is not a discrete mass but rather occurs within the lung tissue. An indication of more severe damage to the lung than pulmonary contusion, a hematoma also takes longer to clear. Unlike contusions, hematomas do not usually interfere with gas exchange in the lung, but they do increase the risk of infection and abscess formation.

  • Ecchymosis


    An ecchymosis is a subcutaneous spot of bleeding with diameter larger than . It is similar to (and sometimes indistinguishable from) a hematoma, commonly called a bruise, though the terms are not interchangeable in careful usage. Specifically, bruises are caused by trauma whereas ecchymoses, which are the same as the spots of purpura except larger, are not necessarily caused by trauma, often being caused by pathophysiologic cell function, and some diseases such as Marburg virus disease. A broader definition of ecchymosis is the escape of blood into the tissues from ruptured blood vessels. The term also applies to the subcutaneous discoloration resulting from seepage of blood within the contused tissue.

  • Hematoma


    A hematoma (US spelling) or haematoma (UK spelling) is a localized collection of blood outside of blood vessels, due to either disease or trauma including injury or surgery and may involve blood continuing to seep from broken capillaries. A hematoma is benign and is initially in liquid form spread among the tissues including in sacs between tissues where it may coagulate and solidify before blood is reabsorbed into blood vessels. An ecchymosis is a hematoma of the skin larger than 10mm. They may occur among/within many areas such as skin and other organs, connective tissues, bone, joints and muscle. A collection of blood (or even a hemorrhage) may be aggravated by anticoagulant medication (blood thinner). Blood seepage and collection of blood may occur if heparin is given via an intramuscular route; to avoid this, heparin must be given intravenously or subcutaneously. It is not to be confused with hemangioma, which is an abnormal buildup/growth of blood vessels in the skin or internal organs.

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