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  • Vitamin K2

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    Vitamin K2 or menaquinone () has nine related compounds, generally subdivided into the short-chain menaquinones (with MK-4 as the most important member) and the long-chain menaquinones, of which MK-7, MK-8 and MK-9 are nutritionally the most recognized.

  • Menatetrenone

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    Menatetrenone (INN), also known as MK-4, is a vitamin K compound used as a hemostatic agent, and also as adjunctive therapy for the pain of osteoporosis. Menatetrenone is one of the nine forms of vitamin K2. MK-4 is produced via conversion of vitamin K1 in the body, in the testes, pancreas and arterial walls. While major questions still surround the biochemical pathway for the transformation of vitamin K1 to MK-4, studies demonstrate the conversion is not dependent on gut bacteria, occurring in germ-free rats and in parenterally-administered K1 in rats. In fact, tissues that accumulate high amounts of MK-4 have a remarkable capacity to convert up to 90% of the available K1 into MK-4.

  • Vitamin K

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    Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation (K from Koagulation, German for "coagulation") and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues. The vitamin K-related modification of the proteins allows them to bind calcium ions, which they cannot do otherwise. Without vitamin K, blood coagulation is seriously impaired, and uncontrolled bleeding occurs. Preliminary clinical research indicates that deficiency of vitamin K may weaken bones, potentially leading to osteoporosis, and may promote calcification of arteries and other soft tissues. Chemically, the vitamin K family comprises 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (3-) derivatives. Vitamin K includes two natural vitamers: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2. Vitamin K2, in turn, consists of a number of related chemical subtypes, with differing lengths of carbon side chains made of isoprenoid groups of atoms.

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