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  • Microsporum gallinae


    Microsporum gallinae is a fungus of the genus Microsporum that causes dermatophytosis, commonly known as ringworm. Chickens represent the host population of Microsporum gallinae but its opportunistic nature allows it to enter other populations of fowl, mice, squirrels, cats, dogs and monkeys. Human cases of M. gallinae are rare, and usually mild, non-life-threatening superficial infections.

  • Microsporum


    Microsporum gypseum Microsporum is a genus of fungi that causes tinea capitis, tinea corporis, ringworm, and other dermatophytoses (fungal infections of the skin). Microsporum forms both macroconidia (large asexual reproductive structures) and microconidia (smaller asexual reproductive structures) on short conidiophores. Macroconidia are hyaline, multiseptate, variable in form, fusiform, spindle-shaped to obovate, 7–20 by 30–160 um in size, with thin or thick echinulate to verrucose cell walls. Their shape, size and cell wall features are important characteristics for species identification. Microconidia are hyaline, single-celled, pyriform to clavate, smooth-walled, 2.5–3.5 by 4–7 um in size and are not diagnostic for any one species. The separation of this genus from Trichophyton is essentially based on the roughness of the macroconidial cell wall, although in practice this may sometimes be difficult to observe. Seventeen species of Microsporum have been described; however, only the more common species are included in these descriptions.

  • Trichophyton tonsurans


    Trichophyton tonsurans is a fungus in the family Arthrodermataceae that causes ringworm infection of the scalp. It was first recognized by David Gruby in 1844. Isolates are characterized as the "–" or negative mating type of the Arthroderma vanbreuseghemii complex. This species is thought to be conspecific with T. equinum, although the latter represents the "+" mating strain of the same biological species Despite their biological conspecificity, clones of the two mating types appear to have undergone evolutionary divergence with isolates of the T. tonsurans-type consistently associated with Tinea capitis (particularly in children) whereas the T. equinum-type, as its name implies, is associated with horses as a regular host. Phylogenetic relationships were established in isolates from Northern Brazil, through fingerprinting polymorphic RAPD and M13 markers. There seems to be lower genomic variability in the T. tonsurans species due to allopatric divergence. Any phenotypic density is likely due to environmental factors, not genetic characteristics of the fungus.

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