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  • Legionnaires' disease

    serch.it?q=Legionnaires'-disease

    Legionnaires' disease, also known as legionellosis, is a form of atypical pneumonia caused by any type of Legionella bacteria. Signs and symptoms include cough, shortness of breath, high fever, muscle pains, and headaches. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may also occur. This often begins 2-10 days after exposure. The bacterium is found naturally in fresh water. It can contaminate hot water tanks, hot tubs, and cooling towers of large air conditioners. It is usually spread by breathing in mist that contains the bacteria. It can also occur when contaminated water is aspirated. It typically does not spread directly between people, and most people who are exposed do not become infected. Risk factors for infection include older age, a history of smoking, chronic lung disease, and poor immune function. Those with severe pneumonia and those with pneumonia and a recent travel history should be tested for the disease. Diagnosis is by a urinary antigen test and sputum culture. No vaccine is available. Prevention depends on good maintenance of water systems. Treatment of Legionnaires' disease is with antibiotics. Recommended agents include fluoroquinolones, azithromycin, or doxycycline. Hospitalization is often required. About 10% of those who are infected die. The number of cases that occur globally is not known. Legionnaires' disease is the cause of an estimated 2-9% of pneumonia cases that are acquired outside of hospital. An estimated 8,000 to 18,000 cases a year in the United States require hospitalization. Outbreaks of disease account for a minority of cases. While it can occur any time of the year, it is more common in the summer and fall. The disease is named after the outbreak where it was first identified, at a 1976 American Legion convention in Philadelphia.

  • Pontiac fever

    serch.it?q=Pontiac-fever

    Pontiac fever is an acute, nonfatal respiratory disease caused by various species of Gram-negative bacteria in the genus Legionella. It causes a mild upper respiratory infection that resembles acute influenza. Pontiac fever resolves spontaneously and often goes undiagnosed. Both Pontiac fever and the more severe Legionnaire's disease are caused by the same bacteria, but Pontiac fever does not include pneumonia. Pontiac fever was named for Pontiac, Michigan, where the first case was recognized. In 1968, several workers at the county's department of health came down with a fever and mild flu symptoms, but not pneumonia. After the 1976 Legionnaires' outbreak in Philadelphia, the Michigan health department re-examined blood samples and discovered the workers had been infected with the newly identified Legionella pneumophila. An outbreak caused by Legionella micdadei in early 1988 in the UK became known as Lochgoilhead fever. Since that time, other species of Legionella that cause Pontiac fever have been identified, most notably in New Zealand, in 2007 where Legionella longbeachae was discovered.

  • Legionnaires' disease

    serch.it?q=Legionnaires'-disease

    Legionnaires' disease, also known as legionellosis, is a form of atypical pneumonia caused by any type of Legionella bacteria. Signs and symptoms include cough, shortness of breath, high fever, muscle pains, and headaches. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea may also occur. This often begins 2-10 days after exposure. The bacterium is found naturally in fresh water. It can contaminate hot water tanks, hot tubs, and cooling towers of large air conditioners. It is usually spread by breathing in mist that contains the bacteria. It can also occur when contaminated water is aspirated. It typically does not spread directly between people, and most people who are exposed do not become infected. Risk factors for infection include older age, a history of smoking, chronic lung disease, and poor immune function. Those with severe pneumonia and those with pneumonia and a recent travel history should be tested for the disease. Diagnosis is by a urinary antigen test and sputum culture. No vaccine is available. Prevention depends on good maintenance of water systems. Treatment of Legionnaires' disease is with antibiotics. Recommended agents include fluoroquinolones, azithromycin, or doxycycline. Hospitalization is often required. About 10% of those who are infected die. The number of cases that occur globally is not known. Legionnaires' disease is the cause of an estimated 2-9% of pneumonia cases that are acquired outside of hospital. An estimated 8,000 to 18,000 cases a year in the United States require hospitalization. Outbreaks of disease account for a minority of cases. While it can occur any time of the year, it is more common in the summer and fall. The disease is named after the outbreak where it was first identified, at a 1976 American Legion convention in Philadelphia.

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