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  • Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity


    Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a syndrome that causes episodes of increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Hyperactivity of the sympathetic nervous system can manifest as increased heart rate, increased respiration, increased blood pressure, diaphoresis, and hyperthermia. Previously, this syndrome has been identified as general dysautonomia but now is considered a specific form of it. It has also been referred to as paroxysmal sympathetic instability with dystonia, or PAID, and sympathetic storm. Recently, however, studies have adopted the name paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity to ensure specificity. PSH is observed more in younger patients than older ones. It is also seen more commonly in men than women. There is no known reason why this is the case, although it is suspected pathophysiological links may exist. In patients surviving traumatic brain injury, the occurrence of these episodes is one in every three. PSH can also be associated with severe anoxia, subarachnoid and intracerebral hemorrhage, and hydrocephalus.

  • Neuromyotonia


    Neuromyotonia (NMT) is a form of peripheral nerve hyperexcitability that causes spontaneous muscular activity resulting from repetitive motor unit action potentials of peripheral origin. The prevalence of NMT is unknown but 100–200 cases have been reported so far.

  • Hyperreflexia


    Hyperreflexia (or hyper-reflexia) is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes. Examples of this can include twitching or spastic tendencies, which are indicative of upper motor neuron disease as well as the lessening or loss of control ordinarily exerted by higher brain centers of lower neural pathways (disinhibition). See Autonomic dysreflexia.

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