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  • Fibular collateral ligament

    serch.it?q=Fibular-collateral-ligament

    The fibular collateral ligament (long external lateral ligament or lateral collateral ligament, LCL) is a ligament located on the lateral (outer) side of the knee, and thus belongs to the extrinsic knee ligaments and posterolateral corner of the knee.

  • Baker's cyst

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    A Baker's cyst, also known as a popliteal cyst, is a type of fluid collection behind the knee. Often there are no symptoms. If symptoms do occur these may include swelling and pain behind the knee, or knee stiffness. If the cyst breaks open, pain may significantly increase with swelling of the calf. Rarely complications such as deep vein thrombosis, peripheral neuropathy, ischemia, or compartment syndrome may occur. Risk factors include other knee problems such as osteoarthritis, meniscal tears, or rheumatoid arthritis. The underlying mechanism involves the flow of synovial fluid from the knee joint to the gastrocnemio-semimembranosus bursa, resulting in its expansion. The diagnosis may be confirmed with ultrasound or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment is initially with supportive care. If this is not effective aspiration and steroid injection or surgical removal may be carried out. Around 20% of people have a Baker's cyst. They occur most commonly in those 35 to 70 years old. It is named after the surgeon who first described it, William Morrant Baker (1838–1896).

  • Osteoarthritis

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    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that results from breakdown of joint cartilage and underlying bone. The most common symptoms are joint pain and stiffness. Initially, symptoms may occur only following exercise, but over time may become constant. Other symptoms may include joint swelling, decreased range of motion, and, when the back is affected, weakness or numbness of the arms and legs. The most commonly involved joints are those near the ends of the fingers, at the base of the thumb, neck, lower back, knee, and hips. Joints on one side of the body are often more affected than those on the other. Usually the symptoms come on over years. It can affect work and normal daily activities. Unlike other types of arthritis, only the joints are typically affected. Causes include previous joint injury, abnormal joint or limb development, and inherited factors. Risk is greater in those who are overweight, have one leg of a different length, and have jobs that result in high levels of joint stress. Osteoarthritis is believed to be caused by mechanical stress on the joint and low grade inflammatory processes. It develops as cartilage is lost and the underlying bone becomes affected. As pain may make it difficult to exercise, muscle loss may occur. Diagnosis is typically based on signs and symptoms, with medical imaging and other tests occasionally used to either support or rule out other problems. In contrast to rheumatoid arthritis, which is primarily an inflammatory condition, in osteoarthritis, the joints do not become hot or red. Treatment includes exercise, efforts to decrease joint stress, support groups, and pain medications. Efforts to decrease joint stress include resting and the use of a cane. Weight loss may help in those who are overweight. Pain medications may include paracetamol (acetaminophen) as well as NSAIDs such as naproxen or ibuprofen. Long-term opioid use is generally discouraged due to lack of information on benefits as well as risks of addiction and other side effects. If pain interferes with normal life despite other treatments, joint replacement surgery may help. An artificial joint typically lasts 10 to 15 years. Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting about 237 million (3.3% of the population). Among those over 60 years old, about 10% of males and 18% of females are affected. It is the cause of about 2% of years lived with disability. In Australia, about 1.9 million people are affected, and in the United States, 30 to 53 million people are affected. It becomes more common in both sexes as people become older.

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