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  • Chest pain

    serch.it?q=Chest-pain

    Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest. Chest pain may be a symptom of a number of serious disorders and is, in general, considered a medical emergency. Chest pain can be differentiated into heart-related and non heart related chest pain. Cardiac chest pain is called angina pectoris. Some causes of noncardiac chest pain include gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, or lung issues. Even though chest pain may not be related to a heart problem, noncardiac chest pain can still be due to significant disease. Chest pain can present with different types of pain and associated symptoms which may vary with a person's age, sex, and previous medical conditions. Determining the cause of chest pain is through review of a person's medical history, a physical exam, and other medical tests. Management of chest pain is based on the underlying cause. Chest pain is a common presenting problem: In the United States, an estimated 6-8 million people per year present to the emergency department with chest pain. An estimated 50-70% of patients presenting with chest pain in the emergency department will be placed in an observation unit or admitted to the hospital. 2 million people are admitted annually for workup of acute coronary syndrome. Approximately 8 billion dollars are used annually to evaluate complaints of chest pain. Children with chest pain account for 0.3% to 0.6% of pediatric emergency department visits.

  • Kehr's sign

    serch.it?q=Kehr's-sign

    Kehr's sign is the occurrence of acute pain in the tip of the shoulder due to the presence of blood or other irritants in the peritoneal cavity when a person is lying down and the legs are elevated. Kehr's sign in the left shoulder is considered a classic symptom of a ruptured spleen. May result from diaphragmatic or peridiaphragmatic lesions, renal calculi, splenic injury or ruptured ectopic pregnancy. Kehr's sign is a classic example of referred pain: irritation of the diaphragm is signaled by the phrenic nerve as pain in the area above the collarbone. This is because the supraclavicular nerves have the same cervical nerves origin as the phrenic nerve, C3 and C4. The discovery of this is often attributed to a German gall bladder surgeon named Hans Kehr, but extensive studies into research he conducted during his life shows inconclusive evidence as to whether or not he actually discovered it.

  • Referred pain

    serch.it?q=Referred-pain

    Referred pain, also called reflective pain, is pain perceived at a location other than the site of the painful stimulus. An example is the case of angina pectoris brought on by a myocardial infarction (heart attack), where pain is often felt in the neck, shoulders, and back rather than in the thorax (chest), the site of the injury. The International Association for the Study of Pain has not officially defined the term; hence several authors have defined it differently.Radiating pain is slightly different from referred pain; for example, the pain related to a myocardial infarction could either be referred or radiating pain from the chest. Referred pain is when the pain is located away from or adjacent to the organ involved; for instance, when a person has pain only in their jaw or left arm, but not in the chest. Referred pain has been described since the late 1880s. Despite an increasing amount of literature on the subject, the biological mechanism of referred pain is unknown, although there are several hypotheses.

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