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  • Precordial catch syndrome

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    Precordial catch syndrome (PCS) is a non-serious condition in which there are sharp stabbing pains in the chest. These typically get worse with breathing in and occur within a small area. Spells of pain usually last less than a few minutes. Typically it begins at rest and other symptoms are absent. Concerns about the condition may result in anxiety. The underlying cause is unclear. Some believe the pain may be from the chest wall or irritation of an intercostal nerve. Risk factors include psychological stress. The pain is not due to the heart. Diagnosis is based on the symptoms. Other conditions that may produce similar symptoms include angina, pericarditis, pleurisy, and chest trauma. Treatment is usually via reassurance, as the pain generally resolves without any specific treatment. Outcomes are good. Precordial catch syndrome is relatively common, and children between the ages of 6 and 12 are most commonly affected. Both males and females are affected equally. It is less common in adults. The condition was first described in 1955.

  • Costochondritis

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    Costochondritis, also known as chest wall pain, costosternal syndrome, or costosternal chondrodynia is an acute and often temporary inflammation of the costal cartilage, the structure that connects each rib to the sternum at the costosternal joint. The condition is a common cause of chest pain. Though costochondritis often resolves on its own, it can be a recurring condition that has little or no signs of onset. Costochondritis symptoms can be similar to the chest pain associated with a heart attack. Chest pain is considered a medical emergency until life-threatening cardiac issues (such as an acute coronary syndrome) can be ruled out. Severe cases of costal cartilage inflammation that also involve painful swelling are sometimes referred to as Tietze's syndrome, a term sometimes used interchangeably with costochondritis. However, some physicians view costochondritis and Tietze's syndrome as separate disease states due to the absence of costal cartilage swelling in costochondritis. Treatment options are quite limited and usually involve a combination of rest, analgesics, or anti-inflammatory medications.

  • Chest pain

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    Chest pain is pain in any region of the chest. Chest pain may be a symptom of a number of serious disorders and is, in general, considered a medical emergency. Chest pain can be differentiated into heart-related and non heart related chest pain. Cardiac chest pain is called angina pectoris. Some causes of noncardiac chest pain include gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, or lung issues. Even though chest pain may not be related to a heart problem, noncardiac chest pain can still be due to significant disease. Chest pain can present with different types of pain and associated symptoms which may vary with a person's age, sex, and previous medical conditions. Determining the cause of chest pain is through review of a person's medical history, a physical exam, and other medical tests. Management of chest pain is based on the underlying cause. Chest pain is a common presenting problem: In the United States, an estimated 6-8 million people per year present to the emergency department with chest pain. An estimated 50-70% of patients presenting with chest pain in the emergency department will be placed in an observation unit or admitted to the hospital. 2 million people are admitted annually for workup of acute coronary syndrome. Approximately 8 billion dollars are used annually to evaluate complaints of chest pain. Children with chest pain account for 0.3% to 0.6% of pediatric emergency department visits.

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