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  • Glossitis


    Glossitis can mean soreness of the tongue, or more usually inflammation with depapillation of the dorsal surface of the tongue (loss of the lingual papillae), leaving a smooth and erythematous (reddened) surface, (sometimes specifically termed atrophic glossitis). In a wider sense, glossitis can mean inflammation of the tongue generally. Glossitis is often caused by nutritional deficiencies and may be painless or cause discomfort. Glossitis usually responds well to treatment if the cause is identified and corrected. Tongue soreness caused by glossitis is differentiated from burning mouth syndrome, where there is no identifiable change in the appearance of the tongue, and there are no identifiable causes.

  • Methylmalonic acid


    Methylmalonic acid (MMA) (conjugate base methylmalonate) is a dicarboxylic acid that is a C-methylated derivative of malonate. The coenzyme A linked form of methylmalonic acid, methylmalonyl-CoA, is converted into succinyl-CoA by methylmalonyl-CoA mutase, in a reaction that requires vitamin B12 as a cofactor. In this way, it enters the Krebs cycle, and is thus part of one of the anaplerotic reactions.

  • Vitamin B12-transporting ATPase


    In enzymology, a vitamin B12-transporting ATPase () is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + H2O + vitamin B12out ADP + phosphate + vitamin B12inThe 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, H2O, and vitamin B12, whereas its 3 products are ADP, phosphate, and vitamin B12. This enzyme belongs to the family of hydrolases, specifically those acting on acid anhydrides to catalyse transmembrane movement of substances. The systematic name of this enzyme class is ATP phosphohydrolase (vitamin B12-importing). This enzyme participates in abc transporters - general.

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