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  • Buffalo Hump


    Buffalo Hump (Comanche potsʉnakwahipʉ "buffalo bull's back") (born ca. late 1790s to early 19th century — died 1870) was a War Chief of the Penateka band of the Comanche Indians. He came to prominence after the Council House Fight when he led the Comanches on the Great Raid of 1840.

  • Companion statues: Kashyapa and Ananda


    The Companion Statues on display at the Royal Ontario Museum (ROM) flank a three-metre tall Buddha located in the Southeast Asia Gallery on the first floor at the very back in the centre of the gallery. The younger Luohan has been at the museum since 1922 and the older was purchased in 1990. Curators have concluded that the two Luohans are an original pair.

  • Kyphosis


    Kyphosis (from Greek κυφός kyphos, a hump) is an abnormally excessive convex curvature of the spine as it occurs in the thoracic and sacral regions. (Abnormal inward concave lordotic curving of the cervical and lumbar regions of the spine is called lordosis.) Kyphosis can be called roundback or Kelso's hunchback. It can result from degenerative diseases such as arthritis; developmental problems, most commonly Scheuermann's disease; osteoporosis with compression fractures of the vertebra; multiple myeloma or trauma. A normal thoracic spine extends from the 1st to the 12th vertebra and should have a slight kyphotic angle, ranging from 20° to 45°. When the "roundness" of the upper spine increases past 45° it is called kyphosis or "hyperkyphosis". Scheuermann's kyphosis is the most classic form of hyperkyphosis and is the result of wedged vertebrae that develop during adolescence. The cause is not currently known and the condition appears to be multifactorial and is seen more frequently in males than females. In the sense of a deformity, it is the pathological curving of the spine, where parts of the spinal column lose some or all of their lordotic profile.

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