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  • Ringer's lactate solution

    serch.it?q=Ringer's-lactate-solution

    Ringer's lactate solution (RL), also known as sodium lactate solution and Hartmann's solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride, sodium lactate, potassium chloride, and calcium chloride in water. It is used for replacing fluids and electrolytes in those who have low blood volume or low blood pressure. It may also be used to treat metabolic acidosis in cases other than those caused by lactic acidosis and to wash the eye following a chemical burn. It is given by injection into a vein or applied to the affected area. Side effects may include allergic reactions, high blood potassium, volume overload, and high blood calcium. It may not be suitable for mixing with certain medications and some recommend against use in the same infusion as a blood transfusion. Ringer's lactate solution has a lower rate of acidosis as compared with normal saline. Use is generally safe in pregnancy and breastfeeding. Ringer's lactate solution is in the crystalloid family of medication. It is the same tonicity as blood. Ringer's solution was invented in the 1880s with lactate being added in the 1930s. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. Lactated Ringer's is available as a generic medication. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.60 to 2.30 per liter. For people with poor liver function, Ringer's acetate may be a better alternative with the lactate replaced by acetate. In Scandinavia Ringer's acetate is typically used.

  • Salt poisoning

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    Salt poisoning is an intoxication resulting from the excessive intake of sodium (usually as sodium chloride) in either solid form or in solution (saline water, including brine, brackish water, or seawater). In medicine, the circumstance of salt poisoning is most frequently encountered in children or infants who may be made to consume excessive amounts of table salt. At least one instance of murder of a hospitalized child by salt poisoning has been reported. Too much salt intake in adults can also occur from the drinking of seawater in survival situations or the drinking of soy sauce. Salt poisoning has also been seen in a number of adults with mental health problems.

  • Saline (medicine)

    serch.it?q=Saline-(medicine)

    Saline, also known as saline solution, is a mixture of sodium chloride in water and has a number of uses in medicine. Applied to the affected area it is used to clean wounds, help remove contact lenses, and help with dry eyes. By injection into a vein it is used to treat dehydration such as from gastroenteritis and diabetic ketoacidosis. It is also used to dilute other medications to be given by injection. Large amounts may result in fluid overload, swelling, acidosis, and high blood sodium. In those with long-standing low blood sodium, excessive use may result in osmotic demyelination syndrome. Saline is in the crystalloid family of medications. It is most commonly used as a sterile 9 g of salt per litre (0.9%) solution, known as normal saline. Higher and lower concentrations may also occasionally be used. Saline has a pH of 5.5 making it acidic. The medical use of saline began around 1831. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about US$0.60–4.20 per liter of normal saline.

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