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  • Creatininase

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    In enzymology, a creatininase () is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of creatinine to creatine, which can then be metabolised to urea and sarcosine by creatinase. creatinine + H2O creatineThus, the two substrates of this enzyme are creatinine and H2O, whereas its product is creatine. Creatininase is a member of the urease-related amidohydrolases, the family of hydrolases, those acting on carbon-nitrogen bonds other than peptide bonds, specifically in cyclic amides. The systematic name of this enzyme class is creatinine amidohydrolase. This enzyme is also called creatinine hydrolase. This enzyme participates in arginine and proline metabolism.

  • Jaffe reaction

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    The Jaffe reaction is a colorimetric method used in clinical chemistry to determine creatinine levels in blood and urine. In 1886, Max Jaffe (1841–1911) wrote about its basic principles in the paper Über den Niederschlag, welchen Pikrinsäure in normalem Harn erzeugt und über eine neue Reaction des Kreatinins in which he described the properties of creatinine and picric acid in an alkaline solution. The color change that occurred was directly proportional to the concentration of creatinine, however he also noted that several other organic compounds induced similar reactions. In the early 20th century, Otto Folin adapted Jaffe's research into a clinical procedure. The Jaffe reaction, despite its nonspecificity for creatinine, is still widely employed as the method of choice for creatinine testing due to its speed, adaptability in automated analysis, and cost-effectiveness, and is the oldest methodology continued to be used in the medical laboratory. It is this nonspecificity that has motivated the development of new reference methods for creatinine analysis into the 21st century.

  • Weakness

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    Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions. The causes are many and can be divided into conditions that have true or perceived muscle weakness. True muscle weakness is a primary symptom of a variety of skeletal muscle diseases, including muscular dystrophy and inflammatory myopathy. It occurs in neuromuscular junction disorders, such as myasthenia gravis.

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