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  • CPK-MB test


    The CPK-MB test is a cardiac marker used to assist diagnoses of an acute myocardial infarction. It measures the blood level of CK-MB (creatine kinase-muscle/brain), the bound combination of two variants (isoenzymes CKM and CKB) of the enzyme phosphocreatine kinase. In some locations, the test has been superseded by the troponin test. However, recently, there have been improvements to the test that involve measuring the ratio of the CK-MB1 and CK-MB2 isoforms. The newer test detects different isoforms of the B subunit specific to the myocardium whereas the older test detected the presence of cardiac-related isoenzyme dimers. Many cases of CK-MB levels exceeding the blood level of total CK have been reported, especially in newborns with cardiac malformations, especially ventricular septal defects. This reversal of ratios is in favor of pulmonary emboli or vasculitis. An autoimmune reaction creating a complex molecule of CK and IgG should be taken into consideration.

  • Cardiac stress test


    A cardiac stress test (also referred to as a cardiac diagnostic test, cardiopulmonary exercise test, or abbreviated CPX test) is a cardiological test that measures the heart's ability to respond to external stress in a controlled clinical environment. The stress response is induced by exercise or by intravenous pharmacological stimulation. Cardiac stress tests compare the coronary circulation while the patient is at rest with the same patient's circulation during maximum cardiac exertion, showing any abnormal blood flow to the myocardium (heart muscle tissue). The results can be interpreted as a reflection on the general physical condition of the test patient. This test can be used to diagnose coronary artery disease (also known as ischemic heart disease) and assess patient prognosis after a myocardial infarction (heart attack). Exercise-induced stressors are most commonly either exercise on a treadmill or pedalling a stationary exercise bicycle ergometer. The level of stress is progressively increased by raising the difficulty (steepness of the slope on a treadmill or resistance on an ergometer) and speed.

  • Cardiac marker


    Cardiac markers are biomarkers measured to evaluate heart function. They are often discussed in the context of myocardial infarction, but other conditions can lead to an elevation in cardiac marker level. Most of the early markers identified were enzymes, and as a result, the term "cardiac enzymes" is sometimes used. However, not all of the markers currently used are enzymes. For example, in formal usage, troponin would not be listed as a cardiac enzyme.

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