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Listeria infection is a foodborne bacterial illness that can be very serious for pregnant women and people with impaired immune systems. Listeria infection is most commonly contracted by eating improperly processed deli meats and unpasteurized milk products.
Listeriosis is usually a mild illness for pregnant women, but it causes severe disease in the fetus or newborn baby. Some people with Listeria infections, most commonly adults 65 years and older and people with weakened immune systems, develop severe infections of the bloodstream (causing sepsis) or brain (causing meningitis or encephalitis).
Listeriosis is a disease caused by a rod-shaped gram-positive bacterium named Listeria that can penetrate and replicate inside human cells. Symptoms of listeriosis are variable; most people who are infected have few or no symptoms; when symptoms of Listeria infection are present, they usually consist of. fever, muscle aches, nausea, and; diarrhea.
Which brings us to lesson number one, listeria itself is not a disease; it's a bacteria: listeria monocytogenes.
Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) is a foodborne disease-causing bacteria; the disease is called listeriosis. Listeria can invade the body through a normal and intact gastrointestinal tract. Once in the body, Listeria can travel through the blood stream but the bacteria are often found inside cells. Listeria also produces toxins that damage cells.
Listeriosis is an infection caused by eating food contaminated with the bacterium Listeria monocytogenes. Listeriosis is rare in humans but can be deadly.
Listeria monocytogenes is the species of pathogenic bacteria that causes the infection listeriosis. It is a facultative anaerobic bacterium, capable of surviving in the presence or absence of oxygen. It can grow and reproduce inside the host's cells and is one of the most virulent foodborne pathogens, with 20 to 30% of foodborne listeriosis infections in high-risk individuals may be fatal. Responsible for an estimated 1,600 illnesses and 260 deaths in the United States annually, listeriosis ranks third in total number of deaths among foodborne bacterial pathogens, with fatality rates exceeding even Salmonella spp. and Clostridium botulinum. In the European Union, listeriosis follows an upward trend that began in 2008, causing 2,161 confirmed cases and 210 reported deaths in 2014, 16% more than in 2013. Listeriosis mortality rates in the US are also higher in the EU than for other foodborne pathogens.Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive bacterium, in the division Firmicutes, named after Joseph Lister. Its ability to grow at temperatures as low as 0°C permits multiplication at typical refrigeration temperatures, greatly increasing its ability to evade control in human foodstuffs.
The 2017–18 South African listeriosis outbreak is an ongoing widespread outbreak of Listeria monocytogenes food poisoning that resulted from contaminated processed meats produced by Enterprise Foods, a subsidiary of Tiger Brands, in Polokwane. As of 12 March 2018, there have been 183 deaths and 973 confirmed infections. It is the world's worst ever listeriosis outbreak.
Listeria is a genus of bacteria that, until 1992, contained 10 known species, each containing two subspecies. As of 2014, another five species were identified. Named after the British pioneer of sterile surgery Joseph Lister, the genus received its current name in 1940. Listeria species are gram-positive, rod-shaped, and facultatively anaerobic, and do not produce endospores. The major human pathogen in the genus Listeria is L. monocytogenes. It is usually the causative agent of the relatively rare bacterial disease listeriosis, an infection caused by eating food contaminated with the bacteria. Listeriosis can cause serious illness in pregnant women, newborns, adults with weakened immune systems and the elderly, and may cause gastroenteritis in others who have been severely infected. Listeriosis is a serious disease for humans; the overt form of the disease has a case-fatality rate around 20%. The two main clinical manifestations are sepsis and meningitis. Meningitis is often complicated by encephalitis, when it is known as meningoencephalitis, a pathology that is unusual for bacterial infections. L. ivanovii is a pathogen of mammals, specifically ruminants, and has rarely caused listeriosis in humans. The incubation period can vary between three and 70 days.