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  • Osteophyte


    Osteophytes are exostoses (bony projections) that form along joint margins. They should not be confused with enthesophytes, which are bony projections that form at the attachment of a tendon or ligament. Osteophytes are not always distinguished from exostoses in any definite way, although in many cases there are a number of differences. Osteophytes are typically intra-articular (within the joint capsule).

  • Exostosis


    An exostosis (plural: exostoses) or bone spur is the formation of new bone on the surface of a bone. Exostoses can cause chronic pain ranging from mild to debilitatingly severe, depending on the shape, size, and location of the lesion. It is most commonly found in places like the ribs, where small bone growths form, but sometimes larger growths can grow on places like the ankles, knees, shoulders, elbows and hips. Very rarely are they on the skull. Exostoses are sometimes shaped like spurs, such as calcaneal spurs. Osteomyelitis, a bone infection, may leave the adjacent bone with exostosis formation. Charcot foot, the neuropathic breakdown of the feet seen primarily in diabetics, can also leave bone spurs that may then become symptomatic. They normally form on the bones of joints, and can grow upwards. For example, if an extra bone formed on the ankle, it might grow up to the shin. When used in the phrases "cartilaginous exostosis" or "osteocartilaginous exostosis", the term is considered synonymous with osteochondroma. Some sources consider the two terms to mean the same thing even without qualifiers, but this interpretation is not universal.

  • Enthesophyte


    An enthesophyte, consisting of calcification deposits within the Achilles tendon at its calcaneal insertion. The Achilles tendon is wider than normal, further suggesting inflammation.Enthesophytes are abnormal bony projections at the attachment of a tendon or ligament. They are not to be confused with osteophytes, which are abnormal bony projections in joint spaces. Enthesophytes and osteophytes are bone responses for stress.

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