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  • Pericardial window


    A pericardial window is a cardiac surgical procedure to create a fistula – or "window" – from the pericardial space to the pleural cavity. The purpose of the window is to allow a pericardial effusion (usually malignant) to drain from the space surrounding the heart into the chest cavity – where the fluid is not as dangerous; an untreated pericardial effusion can lead to cardiac tamponade and death. The window is usually performed by a cardiac surgeon who makes an incision, commonly sub-xiphoid, and cuts a small hole in the pericardium which is the membrane that surrounds the heart. The pericardial window procedure decreases the incidence of postoperative pericardial tamponade and new-onset atrial fibrillation after the open heart surgery.

  • Carditis


    Carditis is the inflammation of the heart or its surroundings. The plural of carditis is carditides. It is usually studied and treated by specifying it as: Pericarditis is the inflammation of the pericardium Myocarditis is the inflammation of the heart muscle Endocarditis is the inflammation of the endocardium Pancarditis is the inflammation of the entire heart: the epicardium, the myocardium and the endocardium Reflux carditis refers to a possible outcome of esophageal reflux (also known as GERD), and involves inflammation of the esophagus/stomach mucosa

  • Pleurisy


    Pleurisy, also known as pleuritis, is inflammation of the membranes that surround the lungs and line the chest cavity (pleurae). This can result in a sharp chest pain with breathing. Occasionally the pain may be a constant dull ache. Other symptoms may include shortness of breath, cough, fever or weight loss, depending on the underlying cause. The most common cause is a viral infection. Other causes include pneumonia, pulmonary embolism, autoimmune disorders, lung cancer, following heart surgery, pancreatitis, chest trauma, and asbestosis. Occasionally the cause remains unknown. The underlying mechanism involves the rubbing together of the pleurae instead of smooth gliding. Other conditions that can produce similar symptoms include pericarditis, heart attack, cholecystitis, and pneumothorax. Diagnosis may include a chest X-ray, electrocardiogram (ECG), and blood tests. Treatment depends on the underlying cause. Paracetamol (acetaminophen) and ibuprofen may be used to decrease pain. Incentive spirometry may be recommended to encourage larger breaths. About one million people are affected in the United States each year. Descriptions of the condition date from at least as early as 400 BC by Hippocrates.

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