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  • Measles vaccine


    Measles vaccine is a vaccine that prevents measles. After one dose at the age of nine months 85% are immune, while a dose at twelve months results in 95% immunity to measles. Nearly all of those who do not develop immunity after a single dose develop it after a second dose. When rates of vaccination within a population are greater than ~92% outbreaks of measles typically no longer occur; however, they may occur again if rates of vaccination decrease. The vaccine's effectiveness lasts many years. It is unclear if it becomes less effective over time. The vaccine may also protect against measles if given within a couple of days after exposure to measles. The vaccine is generally safe, even for those with HIV infections. Side effects are usually mild and short lived. These may include pain at the site of injection or mild fever. Anaphylaxis has been documented in about 3.5–10 cases per million doses. Rates of Guillain–Barré syndrome, autism and inflammatory bowel disease do not appear to be increased by measles vaccination. The vaccine is available both by itself and in combinations such as the MMR vaccine (a combination with the rubella vaccine and mumps vaccine) or the MMRV vaccine (a combination of MMR with the chickenpox vaccine). The measles vaccine is equally effective for preventing measles in all formulations, but side effects vary depending with the combination. The World Health Organization recommends measles vaccine be given at nine months of age in areas of the world where the disease is common, or at twelve months where the disease is not common. Measles vaccine is based on a live but weakened strain of measles. It comes as a dried powder which is mixed with a specific liquid before being injected either just under the skin or into a muscle. Verification that the vaccine was effective can be determined by blood tests. About 85% of children globally have received this vaccine as of 2013. In 2015, at least 160 countries provided two doses in their routine immunization. It was first introduced in 1963. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about 0.70 USD per dose as of 2014.

  • Vaccine hesitancy


  • Vaccination policy


    Vaccination policy refers to the health policy a government adopts in relation to vaccination. Vaccinations are voluntary in some countries and mandatory in others, as part of their public health system. Some governments pay all or part of the costs of vaccinations in a national vaccination schedule.

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