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  • Coronary artery bypass surgery

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    Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, pronounced "cabbage") surgery, and colloquially heart bypass or bypass surgery, is a surgical procedure to restore normal blood flow to an obstructed coronary artery. A normal coronary artery transports blood to and from the heart muscle itself, not through the main circulatory system. There are two main approaches. In one, the left internal thoracic artery, LITA (also called left internal mammary artery, LIMA) is diverted to the left anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery. In this method, the artery is "pedicled" which means it is not detached from the origin. In the other, a great saphenous vein is removed from a leg; one end is attached to the aorta or one of its major branches, and the other end is attached to the obstructed artery immediately after the obstruction to restore blood flow. CABG is performed to relieve angina unsatisfactorily controlled by maximum tolerated anti-ischemic medication, prevent or relieve left ventricular dysfunction, and/or reduce the risk of death. CABG does not prevent myocardial infarction (heart attack).

  • Cardiac surgery

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    Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons. It is often used to treat complications of ischemic heart disease (for example, with coronary artery bypass grafting); to correct congenital heart disease; or to treat valvular heart disease from various causes, including endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and atherosclerosis. It also includes heart transplantation.

  • Bypass surgery

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    Bypass surgery refers to a class of surgeries involving rerouting a tubular body part. Types include: Vascular bypass surgery such as coronary artery bypass surgery, a heart operation Cardiopulmonary bypass, a technique used in coronary artery bypass surgery Weight loss or Bariatric surgery: Vertical banded gastroplasty surgery or "stomach stapling", the upper part of the stomach is permanently stapled to create a smaller pouch Adjustable gastric band or "lap band", a band creates a pocket in the stomach that can be adjusted with a port placed just under the skin Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery, the small intestine is connected to the upper part of the stomach Partial ileal bypass surgery, shortening the final portion of the small intestine Jejunojejunostomy, surgery that connects two portions of small intestine and is no longer used Ileojejunal bypass, surgery that connects the middle and final portions of the small intestine that was experimental and is no longer used

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