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  • Break-in (mechanical run-in)

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    Break-in or breaking in, also known as run-in or running in, is the procedure of conditioning a new piece of equipment by giving it an initial period of running, usually under light load, but sometimes under heavy load or normal load. It is generally a process of moving parts wearing against each other to produce the last small bit of size and shape adjustment that will settle them into a stable relationship for the rest of their working life. One of the most common examples of break-in is engine break-in for petrol engines and diesel engines.

  • Back-fire

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    1985 Audi S1-E2 Quattro racing car during deceleration A back-fire or backfire is combustion or an explosion produced by a running internal combustion engine that occurs in the air intake or exhaust system rather than inside the combustion chamber. Unburnt fuel or hydrocarbons that are ignited in the exhaust system can produce loud sounds even if flames are not present at the tailpipe. A visible flame may momentarily shoot out of the exhaust pipe where the exhaust system is shortened. Fire may also travel into the air intake piping. Either condition may cause a loud popping noise, together with possible loss of power and forward motion. A back-fire is a separate phenomenon from the fire produced by Top Fuel dragsters. If a backfire does occur in the exhaust, it is known as an after-fire. Strictly speaking, the term backfire refers to unburned fuel moving back into the intake and combusting, whereas an after-fire combusts unburned fuel in the exhaust side of the combustion cycle. A common cause of after-fire is from running a too-rich fuel mix, which is often the result of combustion not achieving high enough temperatures to cleanly burn all of the fuel.

  • Oil pump (internal combustion engine)

    serch.it?q=Oil-pump-(internal-combustion-engine)

    Oil circulation system Gerotor type oil pump from a scooter engine The oil pump in an internal combustion engine circulates engine oil under pressure to the rotating bearings, the sliding pistons and the camshaft of the engine. This lubricates the bearings, allows the use of higher-capacity fluid bearings and also assists in cooling the engine. As well as its primary purpose for lubrication, pressurized oil is increasingly used as a hydraulic fluid to power small actuators. One of the first notable uses in this way was for hydraulic tappets in camshaft and valve actuation. Increasingly common recent uses may include the tensioner for a timing belt or variators for variable valve timing systems.

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