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  • Concealed ovulation


    Concealed ovulation or hidden estrus in a species is the lack of any perceptible change in an adult female (for instance, a change in appearance or scent) when she is fertile and near ovulation. Some examples of perceptible changes are swelling and redness of the genitalia in baboons and bonobos, and pheromone release in the feline family. In contrast, the females of humans and a few other species that undergo hidden estrus have few external signs of fecundity, making it difficult for a mate to consciously deduce, by means of external signs only, whether or not a female is near ovulation.

  • Heavy menstrual bleeding


    Heavy menstrual bleeding, previously known as menorrhagia, is a menstrual period with excessively heavy flow and falls under the larger category of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB). Abnormal uterine bleeding can be caused by structural abnormalities in the reproductive tract, anovulation, bleeding disorders, hormone issues (such as hypothyroidism) or cancer of the reproductive tract. Initial evaluation aims at figuring out pregnancy status, menopausal status, and the source of bleeding. Treatment depends on the cause, severity, and interference with quality of life. Initial treatment often involve contraceptive pills. Surgery can be an effective second line treatment for those women whose symptoms are not well-controlled. Approximately 53 in 1000 women are affected by AUB.

  • Menstruation in Islam


    The ḥaiẓ (حيض menses) is the religious state of menstruation in Islam. Menstruation relates to various purity related restrictions in Islamic sexual jurisprudence. Muslim women that are going through menstrual bleeding are exempt from fasting during the Ramadan.

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