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  • Ichthyophthirius multifiliis


    Ichthyophthirius multifiliis is an ectoparasite of freshwater fish which causes a disease commonly known as white spot disease, or Ich. Ich is one of the most common and persistent diseases in fish. It appears on the body, fins and gills of fish as white nodules of up to 1 mm, that look like white grains of salt. Each white spot is an encysted parasite. It is easily introduced into a fish pond or home aquarium by new fish or equipment which has been moved from one fish-holding unit or pond to another. When the organism gets into a large fish culture facility, it is difficult to control due to its fast reproductive cycle and its unique life stages. If not controlled, there is a 100% mortality rate of fish. With careful treatment, the disease can be controlled but the cost is high in terms of lost fish, labor, and cost of chemicals. The protozoa damages the gills and skin as it enters the tissues, leading to ulceration and loss of skin. Severe infections rapidly lead to loss of condition and death. Damage to the gills reduces the respiratory efficiency of the fish, reducing its oxygen intake from the water. This causes the fish to become less tolerant to low oxygen concentrations in the water. Contrary to popular belief, white-spot is not present in every aquarium or pond.

  • Potassium metabisulfite


    Potassium metabisulfite, K2S2O5, also known as potassium pyrosulfite, is a white crystalline powder with a pungent sulfur odour. The main use for the chemical is as an antioxidant or chemical sterilant. It is a disulfite and is chemically very similar to sodium metabisulfite, with which it is sometimes used interchangeably. Potassium metabisulfite is generally preferred out of the two as it does not contribute sodium to the diet. Potassium metabisulfite has a monoclinic crystal structure which decomposes at 190 °C, yielding potassium sulfite and sulfur dioxide: K2S2O5(s) → K2SO3(s) + SO2(g)

  • Spotted lanternfly


    The spotted lanternfly (Lycorma delicatula) is a planthopper that is indigenous to China, India, and Vietnam. Although it has two pairs of wings, it jumps more than it flies. Its host plants are grapes, pines, stone fruits, and Malus species. In its native habitat it is kept in check by natural predators or pathogens. It was accidentally introduced in Korea in 2006 and has since been considered a pest. In September 2014, it was first recorded in the United States, and it is now an invasive species in eastern Pennsylvania and southwestern New Jersey.

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