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  • Erythrasma

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    Erythrasma is a superficial skin infection that causes brown, scaly skin patches. It is caused by Corynebacterium minutissimum, a normal part of skin flora (the microorganisms that are normally present on the skin). There are two types of erythrasma: generalized and interdigital. Interdigital is the most common bacterial infection of the feet and normally does not show any symptoms. Not only is this an aesthetically unappealing condition, but there is evidence to support that disciform erythrasma can be an early sign of type 2 diabetes mellitus. The generalized erythrasma is most commonly seen in Diabetes mellitus type 2 where the lesions go beyond the areas of the body where skin is rubbing together. It is prevalent among diabetics and the obese, and in warm climates; it is worsened by wearing occlusive clothing. The presence of erythrasma is approximately 4% and is more likely to be found in the subtropical and tropical areas compared to the rest of the world. It is found more commonly in African Americans due to the darker skin and even though both sexes are affected, it is usually found more frequently in males for the thigh and leg regions.

  • Vaginal wet mount

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    Vaginal wet mount showing slings of pseudohyphae of Candida albicans surrounded by round vaginal epithelial cells, conferring a diagnosis of candidal vulvovaginitis. A vaginal wet mount (or vaginal smear or wet prep) is a gynecologic test wherein a sample of vaginal discharge is observed by wet mount microscopy by placing the specimen on a glass slide and mixing with a salt solution. It is used to find the cause of vaginitis and vulvitis.

  • Onychomycosis

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    Onychomycosis, also known as tinea unguium, is a fungal infection of the nail. Symptoms may include white or yellow nail discoloration, thickening of the nail, and separation of the nail from the nail bed. Toenails or fingernails may be affected, but it is more common for toenails to be affected. Complications may include cellulitis of the lower leg. A number of different types of fungus can cause onychomycosis including dermatophytes and Fusarium. Risk factors include athlete's foot, other nail diseases, exposure to someone with the condition, peripheral vascular disease, and poor immune function. The diagnosis is generally suspected based on the appearance and confirmed by laboratory testing. Onychomycosis does not necessarily require treatment. The antifungal medication, terbinafine, taken by mouth appears to be the most effective but is associated with liver problems. Trimming the affected nails when on treatment also appears useful. There is a ciclopirox-containing nail polish, but it does not work as well. The condition returns in up to half of cases following treatment. Not using old shoes after treatment may decrease the risk of recurrence. It occurs in about 10 percent of the adult population. Older people are more frequently affected. Males are affected more often than females. Onychomycosis represents about half of nail disease. It was first determined to be the result of a fungal infection in 1853 by Georg Meissner.

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